- Area: 28,748 km2
- Population: 2,876,591
- Infant mortality: estimated at 12 per 1,000 live births in 2015
- Life expectancy: 77.8 years (75.1 for males and 80.7 for females),
- Urbanisation: 53.4%
- Literacy: 97.6%
During the medieval period, the area what is now known as Albania, remained under Byzantine control until the Slavs began to overrun the country from the 7th century. Later it was captured by the Bulgarian Empire in the 9th century. After the weakening of the Byzantine Empire and the Bulgarian Empire in the 13th century, some of the territory of modern Albania was captured by the Serbian Principality. In general, the invaders destroyed or weakened Roman and Byzantine cultural centers in the lands, that would become Albania.
Albania is located in Southeastern and Southern Europe, with Montenegro bordering to the northwest, Kosovo to the northeast, Macedonia to the east and Greece to the south. The Adriatic and Ionian seas makes up its entire west border of Albania. It lies mostly between latitudes 42° and 39° N, and longitudes 21° and 19° E. The territory covers 28,748 square kilometres (11,100 square miles), making it the 145th largest country in the world. It's coastline length is 476 km (296 mi) and extends along the Adriatic and Ionian Seas within the Mediterranean Sea. The relief of Albania is varied and contains of lowlands, plains, hills, mountains, valleys, rock formations, caves and deep gorges. Topographically, it encompasses a wide variety of landscapes, from coastal plains in the west to the Albanian Alps in the north, the Korab Mountains in the east, Pindus Mountains in the southeast and the Ceraunian Mountains in the southwest along the Albanian Riviera. The highest peak is Mount Korab standing at 2,764 metres (9,068 ft) above sea level. The climate on the coasts are typically Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and warm, sunny, and rather dry summers. Inland conditions vary depending on elevation, but the higher areas above 1,524 metres (5,000 feet) in the north, such as the Albanian Alps are rather cold and frequently snowy in winter; here cold conditions with snow may linger into spring. With its coastline facing the Adriatic and Ionian Sea in the west, Albania's highlands backed upon the elevated Balkan landmass, and the entire country lying at a latitude subject to a variety of weather patterns during the winter and summer seasons. Although Albania has a high number of climatic regions relative to its landmass. The coastal lowlands have typically mediterranean climate; the highlands have a mediterranean continental climate. In both the lowlands and the interior, the weather varies markedly from north to south. The lowlands have mild winters, averaging about 7 °C (45 °F). Summer temperatures average 24 °C (75 °F). In the southern lowlands, temperatures average about 5 °C (9 °F) higher throughout the year. The difference is greater than 5 °C (9 °F) during the summer and somewhat less during the winter.
Albania is a democratic and developing country with an upper-middle income economy. The service sector dominates the country's economy, followed by the industrial and agriculture sector. Following the collapse of communism in 1990, Albania went through a process of transition from a centralized economy to a market-based economy. Albania has a high Human Development Index and is ranked thirty-seventh in the world for life expectancy. It provides universal health care and free primary and secondary education to its citizens. Albania is a member of the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, Council of Europe, OSCE, and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. It is also an official candidate for membership in the European Union. Furthermore, Albania is one of the founding members of the Energy Community, including the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation, and Union for the Mediterranean.