- Area: 318,772 square miles
- Population: 2,113,077
- Infant mortality: 19 per 1000 live births
- Life expectancy: 64.92
- Urbanisation: 48%
- Literacy: 95
Namibia was a German colony from 1883 until occupation by South Africa during the First World War. During the 1970s and 1980s SWAPO (the South West Africa People’s Organization), based largely on the Ovambo tribe, waged a guerrilla war against the government. Full independence from South Africa came in 1990.
Hot desert. The Namibian Desert runs along the western coast, the Kalahari Desert runs to the east. The Orange and Zambezi rivers form part of Namibia’s borders.
Namibia is rich in mineral resources, including diamonds, uranium, copper, gold, lead, tin, cadmium, zinc, vanadium, salt, coal, iron ore and natural gas. Mining accounts for 20% of GDP. Fishing is also important. The main energy source is hydroelectricity. Nevertheless, many are unemployed, with half the population practising subsistence agriculture.