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World Mission

Romania

Basic info

Romania is a sovereign state located in Southeastern Europe It borders the Black Sea, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Hungary, Serbia, and Moldova. It has an area of 238,391 square kilometres (92,043 sq mi) and a temperate-continental climate. With over 19 million inhabitants, the country is the seventh-most-populous member state of the European Union. Its capital and largest city, Bucharest, is the sixth-largest city in the EU, with 1,883,425 inhabitants as of 2011. The River Danube, Europe's second-longest river, rises in Germany and flows in a general southeast direction for 2,857 km (1775 mi), coursing through ten countries before emptying into Romania's Danube Delta. The Carpathian Mountains, which cross Romania from the north to the southwest are marked by one of their tallest peaks, Moldoveanu, at 2,544 m (8,346 ft). Modern Romania was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia. The new state, officially named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877. At the end of World War I, Transylvania, Bukovina and Bessarabia united with the sovereign Kingdom of Romania. During World War II, Romania was an ally of Nazi Germany against the Soviet Union, fighting side by side with the Wehrmacht until 1944, when it joined the Allied powers and faced occupation by the Red Army forces. Romania lost several territories, of which Northern Transylvania was regained after the war. Following the war, Romania became a Socialist state and member of the Warsaw Pact. After the 1989 Revolution, Romania began a transition towards democracy and a capitalist market economy. Following rapid economic growth in the early 2000s, Romania has an economy predominantly based on services, and is a producer and net exporter of machines and electric energy, featuring companies like Automobile Dacia and OMV Petrom. It has been a member of NATO since 2004, and part of the European Union since 2007. A strong majority of the population identify themselves as Eastern Orthodox Christians and are native speakers of Romanian, a Romance language. The cultural history of Romania is often referred to when dealing with influential artists, musicians, inventors and sportspeople. For similar reasons, Romania has been the subject of notable tourist attractions. Taken from the Wikipedia article on Romania
  • Area: 92,043 square miles
  • Population: 19,511,000
  • Infant mortality: 9.2
  • Life expectancy: 75.06
  • Urbanisation: 54.6
  • Literacy: 98.76

History

Romania was formed in 1861, when the provinces of Walachia and Moldovia united. It became a communist republic in 1946. The Christian Church suffered persecution under communism. Nicolae Ceausescu ruled repressively from 1965 to 1989. His forcible urbanization and industrialization programmes led to severe food shortages. He and his wife were ousted by the army and summarily executed in 1989. Democratic elections took place in 1992. Romania is seeking full integration into the European Union and NATO. The previous monarch, King Michael, who abdicated in 1947, returned to receive a hero's welcome in 1997. Romania struggles with widespread poverty, caused by years of corruption, bureaucracy and economic mismanagement - not all in the past either. Under Ceausescu birth control was outlawed. This has left a legacy of unwanted and neglected children. Conditions in state orphanages and hospitals are poor.

Environment

The Carpathian Alps run through the centre of Romania. They are home to many wild animals, including wolves, wild boar and bears. To the west lies the Transylvanian Basin; to the east the Danube River, plains and delta.

Economy

Mainly agricultural, producing cereals, sugar beet, potatoes, meat, fruit and timber; also rich in oil, natural gas, coal, and mineral deposits; fishing. Previous economic bias towards heavy industry has brought serious imbalance and pollution.

Ethnic groups

Ethnic Groups(%)

Romanian

88.9

Hungarian

6.1

Roma

3

Ukrainian

0.2

German

0.2

Religion

Religion(%)

Eastern Orthodox

81

Roman Catholic

4.3

Reformed

3

Pentecostal

1.8

Other

1.8

Greek Catholic

0.7

Baptist

0.6

Seventh-day Adventist

0.4

Protestant Denominations

Hungarian Reformed; Romanian Baptist Union; Pentecostal; Christian Brethren; Lutheran; Hungarian Baptist Union; also The Lord's Army (an unofficial renewal movement within the Orthodox Churches). Over half of the Protestants would claim to be evangelicals.

Languages

  • 85%

    Romanian

  • 6.2%

    Hungarian

  • 1.2%

    Vlax Romani