- Area: 241,038 sq km
- Population: 39,570,125
- Infant mortality: 56.1 deaths/1,000 live births
- Life expectancy: 55.9 years
- Urbanisation: 23.8% of total population
- Literacy: 78.4%
The colonial boundaries created by Britain to delimit Uganda grouped together a wide range of ethnic groups with different political systems and cultures. These differences complicated the establishment of a working political community after independence was achieved in 1962. The dictatorial regime of Idi AMIN (1971-79) was responsible for the deaths of some 300,000 opponents; guerrilla war and human rights abuses under Milton OBOTE (1980-85) claimed at least another 100,000 lives. The rule of Yoweri MUSEVENI since 1986 has brought relative stability and economic growth to Uganda. In December 2017, parliament approved the removal of presidential age limits, thereby making it possible for MUSEVENI to continue standing for office.
It is tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast. Terrain mostly plateau with rim of mountains.
Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular rainfall, significant reserves of recoverable oil, and small deposits of copper, gold, and other minerals. Agriculture is one of the most important sectors of the economy, employing 72% of the work force. The country’s export market, which suffered a major slump following the outbreak of conflict in South Sudan, has now recovered, largely due to record coffee harvests and increasing gold exports. Uganda has a small industrial sector that is dependent on imported inputs such as refined oil and heavy equipment. Productivity is hampered by several supply-side constraints, including insufficient infrastructure, underinvestment in agriculture, rudimentary technology, and corruption. Uganda’s economic growth has slowed since 2016, with the growth rate dropping from 5.7% in 2015 to 4.4% in 2017. In FY 2016/17, revenue collections dropped by 4%, as public debt increased from 33.3% of GDP in 2015 to 40% in 2017. Uganda relies on foreign donor support to finance long-term drivers of growth, such as agriculture, health, and education. Oil revenues and taxes will become a larger source of government funding in the near future when oil production begins in the next three to 10 years. Foreign investors are planning to invest $9 billion in production facilities projects, $4 billion in an export pipeline, and $2-3 billion in a refinery to produce petroleum products for the domestic and East African Community markets. Furthermore, the government is looking to build several hundred million dollars’ worth of highways to connect the oil region to the rest of the country. Uganda faces many economic challenges. Instability in South Sudan has led to a sharp increase in Sudanese refugees and is disrupting Uganda's main export market. Uganda has one of the lowest electrification rates in Africa - only 22% of Ugandans have access to electricity at the national level, and this figure drops to 10% in rural areas. Additional problems include poor economic management, endemic corruption, and a failure to invest adequately in health, education, and economic opportunities for a burgeoning young population.