Abraham Kuyper was Prime Minister of the Netherlands between 1901 and 1905, an influential neo-Calvinist theologian, and a journalist. He established the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands, which upon its foundation became the second largest Reformed denomination in the country behind the state-supported Dutch Reformed Church. He also founded a newspaper, the Free University of Amsterdam, and the Anti-Revolutionary Party.
In religious affairs, he sought to adapt the Dutch Reformed Church to challenges posed by the loss of state financial aid and by increasing religious pluralism in the wake of splits that the church had undergone in the 19th century, rising Dutch nationalism, and the Arminian religious revivals of his day which denied predestination. He vigorously denounced modernism in theology as a fad that would pass away. In politics, he dominated the Anti-Revolutionary Party (ARP) from its founding in 1879 to his death in 1920. He promoted pillarisation, the social expression of the anti-thesis in public life, whereby Protestant, Catholic and secular elements each had their own independent schools, universities, and social organisations.
- Born: 29 October 1837, Maassluis, Netherlands
- Died: 08 November 1920, The Hague, Netherlands
- Family: Married to Johanna Schaay and had eight children