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All articles from issue May 2021

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Philip Melanchthon

Philip Melanchthon (the Greek version of his German surname Schwartzerdt) was a German Protestant Reformer, expert in biblical Greek, colleague of Martin Luther, and the first systematic theologian of the Reformation. After receiving a classical education at an early age, he was invited to Wittenberg by Luther to become professor of Greek. He was…

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Huldrych Zwingli

Huldrych Zwingli was the early leader of the Swiss Reformation. Born in 1484 to a farming family, he received education in Vienna and then Basel before taking up the priesthood in Zürich. Over the course of his studies of the biblical languages and Erasmus’s writings, and then throughout his ministry in Zürich, his own…

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Erasmus: The Greek New Testament

Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam was a Dutch Catholic scholar who, though at odds with Protestants, also had an eye to church reform and return to New Testament purity. In 1516, after years of study, collation, and translation, he published the first Greek New Testament, Novum Instrumentum omne. It was published under five editions up…

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Johann Reuchlin: Hebrew grammar

Johann Reuchlin was a German Catholic linguistic scholar and great-uncle of Protestant Reformer Phillip Melanchthon. He studied Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, publishing in 1506 De Rudimentis Hebraicis, a Hebrew grammar and lexicon. This text was used by European Bible translators to help them provide direct and faithful translations of the original language of the Old…

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Martin Luther

Martin Luther, German monk, priest, professor, and Protestant Reformer, was born on 10 November 1483 to Hans and Margaret Luther. During his studies to become a lawyer, Luther had a near-death experience in a lightning storm, and fearing judgment, committed himself to religion and entered an Augustinian monastery. There he took up an extremely…

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Peter Lombard

Peter Lombard, born around 1100 in northwestern Italy, was a Scholastic theologian, professor at the cathedral school of Notre Dame in Paris, and finally and briefly, bishop of Paris. Peter wrote commentaries on Scripture and produced the Sentences, a theological textbook for the medieval Catholic church important to the development of Christian thought both…

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Thomas Aquinas

Thomas Aquinas was a Scholastic theologian of the 13th century whose thought was a seminal syncretisation of ancient philosophy and medieval Christian doctrine as well as a bridge into modern thought. Born in 1225 to a wealthy Sicilian family, Thomas was set aside for theological training from an early age, studied philosophy and theology…

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Gregory I

Known as ‘Gregory the Great’, Gregory was born to a wealthy family in the city of Rome around 540, just before Italy was ravaged by the Plague of Justinian and then taken from the Goths by the Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I of Constantinople. Despite these upheavals, he had a good Latin education. He…

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