Luther examined the seven sacraments of Roman Catholicism in the light of Bible teaching. He repudiated mass as a ‘sacrifice’ and the doctrine of transubstantiation. On baptism, Luther wrote that it must be followed by saving faith in order to be effective. Luther also affirmed a form of penance. The other four (confirmation, matrimony, holy orders and extreme unction) were rejected as sacraments by Luther. The tract marked further radicalisation of Luther’s views; he now fiercely attacked the papacy as antichrist.